MySQL on Azure – Azure loves Open Source

Do you know? Open source software (OSS) platforms and technologies are among the fastest growing workloads on Azure nowadays.

As people say, Over the past few years, Microsoft has undergone a major cultural shift towards sharing and collaboration and this naturally includes engaging with open source communities. Microsoft teams across the company are now releasing their function as open source, contributing to a wide variety of open source projects, and are using open source tools.

I presume you know about the followings –

.NET Core –

.NET is a free, cross-platform, open source developer platform for building many different types of applications. Community makes 60% of code contributions. More

Visual Studio Code –

Quick to market with cross-platform support and Microsoft has made numerous contributions to the Electron codebase. More

And of course, Azure –

Popular services based on Linux, Hadoop, Redis and other OSS projects. Microsoft has contributed Azure’s data center designs to the Open Compute Project. More

Azure Database for MySQL” –

A new addition to the Azure Relational Database family. A fully managed, enterprise-ready community MySQL database as a service.

The MySQL Community edition helps you easily lift and shift to the cloud, using languages and frameworks of your choice and Scale in seconds with built-in high availability with Secure, compliant and global reach.

Developing a “Hello World” program using C# and Azure Database for MySQL is possible within few minutes.

  • Login to Azure portal and create an “Azure Database for MySQL server” and a sample database with sample table.
  • Create a C# Console App.
  • Install the MySql.Data.MySqlClient .Net Core Class Library to the project using NuGet package manager.
  • Compile and Run.

I know it’s easy said than done so here is git repository for quick reference. Happy coding

QnA Maker – Documents to a FAQs App

A common challenge for most informational FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) scenarios is to separate out the content management from the FAQs design and development, as content owners are usually domain experts who may not be technical. QnAMaker addresses this by enabling a QnA management experience.

In Microsoft words – Azure QnA Maker allows you to edit, remove, or add QnA pairs with an easy-to-use interface, then publish your knowledge base as an API endpoint for a bot service. It’s simple to test and train the bot using a familiar chat interface, and the active learning feature automatically learns questions variations from users over time and adds them to your knowledge base. Use the QnA Maker endpoint to seamlessly integrate with other APIs like Language Understanding service and Speech APIs to interpret and answer user questions in different ways. More details are available here.

To get my hands dirty, I started developing a minimal app. Basically, a Hello World with QaA Maker

The high-level scope is –

  1. Firstly, I have an “Azure Purchase FAQ.pdf” file which contains the questions and answers related to Azure purchasing (it’s a cut short version for obvious reasons).
  2. Secondly, I uploaded the above file to and terminology wise, it’s the knowledge base creation.
  3. Lastly, developed a quick console application using C#. On start, this app hits the ‘qnamaker’ endpoint to search a question and gets the answer for it.

Honestly, writing this blog took me more time than developing an end to end working solution

The solution is uploaded on the GitHub with project namely, “AzurePurchaseFAQ“. Feel free to copy/clone and try your own hands also. To begin, create the QnA Maker service and deploy with free/defaults. The settings for Sample HTTP request would look like –

POST /knowledgebases/ee0f5e4a-ac42-4f91-9b47-8161b6c5a409/generateAnswer


Authorization: EndpointKey 4836aac3-9fcf-45ca-9295-d256a50216ec

Content-Type: application/json


On running the app, the console window should look like this –

Happy coding, and have fun 🙂

Designing High Availability and Disaster Recovery for IoT/Event Hub

Before we jump directly to the topic, it requires some pre-requisites. So, make yourself comfortable with them.

As per wiki, High Availability (HA) is a characteristic of a system, which aims to ensure an agreed level of operational performance, usually uptime, for a higher than normal period. It is measured as a percentage of uptime in a given year. For details, please refer.

And, Disaster Recovery (DR) involves a set of policies, procedures and tools to enable the recovery or continuation of vital technology infrastructure and systems following a natural or human-induced disaster. Disaster recovery focuses on the IT or technology systems supporting critical business functions. For details, please refer.

Azure like any other cloud provider, has many built-in platform features that support highly available applications. However, you need to design the application specific logic (checklist) which absorbs fluctuations in availability, load, and temporary failures in dependent services and hardware. So that, the overall solution continues to perform acceptably, as defined by business requirements or application service-level agreements (SLAs). For details, please refer.

Hoping above info provides the high-level picture of HA/DR. Remaining post is more focused on a specific scenario in Internet of Things (IOT), basically the headline 🙂

I’m intentionally skipping the conceptual part of HA/DR importance, how to measure it, and different enables. As enough literature is available of the www.

Designing HA/DR for a solution which is using IoT/Event Hub has few considerations –

  • Devices are Smart – The devices should either have logic to differentiate between the primary and secondary region/site or shouldn’t declaratively aware of any endpoint. One of the way is to devices regularly check a concierge service for the current active endpoint. The concierge service can be a web service that is replicated and kept reachable using DNS-redirection techniques (Example, Azure Traffic Manager or AWS Route 53). So, you need to ask yourself what will happened to messages when cloud endpoint is not available? Message loss is acceptable/not? If yes, then fine otherwise you need some offline storage/queue at device end also.
  • Devices Identities – Generally endpoint understand the devices identities, if so then all device identities should be geo-replicated/backups and pushed to the secondary IoT hub before switching the active endpoint for the devices. Accordingly, the concierge service and ultimately devices must be made aware of this change in the endpoint. Also you need to develop the tools/utilities to quickly upload/push devices metadata to the IoT Hub.
  • Delta Identification and Merge – Once the primary region becomes available again, all the state and data that have been created in the secondary site must be migrated back to the primary region. This state and data mostly relates to device identities and application metadata, which must be merged with the primary IoT hub and any other application-specific stores in the primary region.

How much time it should take to fall back to secondary site and recover from it, is something which is solution specific and depends on solution’s RPOs and RTOs.

The overall approach includes following considerations in two major areas –

  • Device – IoT Hub
    • A secondary IoT hub
    • Backup Identities to a geo-redundant store
    • Device routing logic
    • Merging identities, when Primary is back
    • Either interim message store on device or message loss acceptable.
  • Application Components/Storages
    • A secondary App/Services Instance
    • Enable geo-redundant for all storages
    • Restoration of data/states from used storages (SQL & NoSQL)
    • Anything custom

Here is the conceptual architecture diagram, which depicts the proposed solution.

Although diagram is self-explanatory – but feel free to comment/ask on anything.